Tuesday, February 26, 2013
Mark P. Keightley
Specialist in Economics
A home foreclosure, mortgage default, or mortgage modification can have important tax consequences. As lenders and borrowers work to resolve indebtedness issues, some transactions are resulting in cancellation of debt. Mortgage debt cancellation can occur when lenders restructure loans, reducing principal balances, or sell properties, either in advance, or as a result, of foreclosure proceedings. Historically, if a lender forgives or cancels such debt, tax law has treated it as cancellation of debt (COD) income subject to tax. Exceptions have been available for taxpayers who are insolvent or in bankruptcy, among others—these taxpayers may exclude canceled mortgage debt income under existing law.
The Mortgage Forgiveness Debt Relief Act of 2007 (P.L. 110-142) signed into law on December 20, 2007, temporarily excludes qualified COD income. Thus, the act allows taxpayers who do not qualify for the existing exceptions to exclude COD income. The provision is effective for debt discharged before January 1, 2010. The Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 (P.L. 110-343) extends the exclusion of COD income to debt discharged before January 1, 2013. Most recently, the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 (P.L. 112-240) extended the exclusion through the end of 2013.
A rationale for excluding canceled mortgage debt income has focused on minimizing hardship for households in distress. Policymakers have expressed concern that households experiencing hardship and that are in danger of losing their home, presumably as a result of financial distress, should not incur an additional hardship by being taxed on canceled debt income. Some analysts have also drawn a connection between minimizing hardship for individuals and consumer spending; reductions in consumer spending, if significant, can lead to recession.
As efforts to minimize the rate of foreclosure are being made, lenders are, in some cases, renegotiating loans with borrowers to keep them in the home. For some policymakers, the exclusion of canceled mortgage debt income may be a necessary step to ensure that homeowner retention efforts are not thwarted by tax policy.
Opponents of an exclusion for canceled mortgage debt income might argue that the provision would make debt forgiveness more attractive for homeowners, and could encourage homeowners to be less responsible about fulfilling debt obligations.
Date of Report: February 12, 2013
Number of Pages: 13
Order Number: RL34212
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