Specialist in Financial Economics
The foreclosure rate in the United States has been rising rapidly since the middle of 2006. Losing a home to foreclosure can hurt homeowners in many ways; for example, homeowners who have been through a foreclosure may have difficulty finding a new place to live or obtaining a loan in the future. Furthermore, concentrated foreclosures can drag down nearby home prices, and large numbers of abandoned properties can negatively affect communities. Finally, the increase in foreclosures may destabilize the housing market, which could in turn negatively impact the economy as a whole.
There is a broad consensus that there are many negative consequences associated with rising foreclosure rates. Both Congress and the Bush and Obama Administrations have initiated efforts aimed at preventing further increases in foreclosures and helping more families preserve homeownership. On February 18, 2009, President Obama announced the Making Home Affordable program, which includes both the Home Affordable Refinance Program (HARP) and the Home Affordable Modification Program (HAMP). HARP allows certain homeowners to refinance their mortgages, while HAMP provides incentives for mortgage servicers to modify the loans of borrowers who are in danger of default or foreclosure. Other foreclosure prevention initiatives established prior to the creation of the Obama Administration's foreclosure prevention plan include the Hope for Homeowners program and Congress's appropriation of funding for foreclosure prevention counseling, which is administered by Neighbor Works America through the National Foreclosure Mitigation Counseling Program (NFMCP). Several states and localities have initiated their own foreclosure prevention efforts, as have private companies including Bank of America, JP Morgan Chase, and Citigroup. A voluntary alliance of mortgage lenders, servicers, investors, and housing counselors has also formed the HOPE NOW Alliance to reach out to troubled borrowers.
Additional efforts to address foreclosures are included in P.L. 111-22, the Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009, signed into law by President Obama on May 20, 2009. The law makes changes to the Hope for Homeowners program and establishes a safe harbor for servicers who engage in certain loan modifications.
While many observers agree that slowing the pace of foreclosures is an important policy goal, there are several challenges associated with foreclosure mitigation plans. These challenges include implementation issues, such as deciding who has the authority to make mortgage modifications, developing the capacity to complete widespread modifications, and assessing the possibility that homeowners with modified loans will nevertheless default again in the future. Other challenges are related to the perception of fairness, the problem of inadvertently providing incentives for borrowers to default, and the possibility of setting an unwanted precedent for future mortgage lending.
This report describes the consequences of foreclosure on homeowners, outlines recent foreclosure prevention plans implemented by the government and private organizations, and discusses the challenges associated with foreclosure prevention.
Date of Report: April 30, 2010
Number of Pages:9
Order Number: RS22506
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Saturday, May 15, 2010