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Friday, April 1, 2011

Contracting Programs for Alaska Native Corporations: Historical Development and Legal Authorities

Kate M. Manuel
Legislative Attorney

John R. Luckey
Legislative Attorney

Jane M. Smith
Legislative Attorney

According to some reports, federal contract dollars awarded to Alaska Native Corporations (ANCs) and their subsidiaries increased by 916% between FY2000 and FY2008, going from $508.4 million to $5.2 billion. The dollars awarded to ANC-owned firms through the Small Business Administration’s (SBA’s) 8(a) Program, in particular, reportedly tripled between FY2004 ($1.1 billion) and FY2008 ($3.9 billion). This widely reported increase has generated congressional and public interest in the legal authorities governing contracting with these entities.

Federal agencies can presently contract with ANCs or ANC-owned firms under various authorities. The identity of the procuring agency and the small business status of the ANC or ANC-owned firm determine, in part, which authority governs in particular circumstances. First, the Armed Services Procurement Act (ASPA) of 1947 and the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act (FPASA) of 1949, as amended, generally give defense and civilian agencies, respectively, broad authority to contract with any qualified, responsible source, including ANCs and ANC-owned firms. These acts also authorize agencies to make sole-source awards to ANCs or ANC-owned firms in certain circumstances (e.g., single source, unusual or compelling circumstances), although such sole-source awards must be justified in writing and approved by agency officials. Second, Section 15 of the Small Business Act of 1958 authorizes agencies to “set aside” contracts for small businesses by conducting competitions in which only they can compete. Section 15 does not, however, authorize sole-source awards. Third, Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act authorizes set-asides and sole-source awards to small businesses owned and controlled by socially and economically disadvantaged individuals or groups. Under Section 8(a), contracts valued in excess of $4 million ($6.5 million for manufacturing contracts) must be set aside for 8(a) firms and cannot be awarded noncompetitively unless (1) there is not a reasonable expectation that at least two eligible and responsible 8(a) firms will submit offers at a fair market price or (2) the SBA accepts the requirement on behalf of an 8(a) firm owned by an ANC, Indian tribe, or, in the case of Department of Defense (DOD) contracts, a Native Hawaiian Organization. Until 2009, such sole-source awards were not subject to justifications or approvals, unlike those under ASPA and FPASA. Fourth, Native American statutes provide for the payment of a 5% bonus to federal contractors that subcontract with ANCs; allow contracts with “large” ANCs to count toward federal prime contractors’ goals for subcontracting with small businesses; and provide that any size ANC counts as a disadvantaged business enterprise for certain transportation contracts. Fifth, various appropriations riders allow DOD to contract out functions performed by government employees to ANCs without going through the competitive sourcing process normally required.

The 111
th Congress enacted legislation (P.L. 111-84) requiring justifications and approvals for sole-source contracts in excess of $20 million awarded to ANC- or other group-owned firms through the 8(a) Program. Members of the 112th Congress have introduced legislation (H.R. 598, S. 236) that would generally subject ANC-owned firms participating in the 8(a) Program to the same treatment as individually owned firms. Among other things, this legislation would preclude ANC-owned firms from receiving sole-source awards valued in excess of $4 million ($6.5 million for manufacturing contracts) under the authority of Section 8(a) of the Small Business Act. SBA also promulgated a final rule on February 11, 2011, prohibiting ANC-owned firms from receiving a sole-source 8(a) contract that is a follow-on contract to an 8(a) contract that was performed immediately previously by another firm owned by the same ANC, as well as requiring ANCowned firms to report annually on the benefits provided to Alaska Natives through the ANC’s participation in the 8(a) Program. This rule would also make other changes affecting ANCs.

Date of Report: March 25, 2011
Number of Pages: 28
Order Number: R40855
Price: $29.95

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